ART OF STAINED GLASS
GLOSSARY

Antique glass: Traditional handblown sheet glass. In this process, the glass is blown into cylinders that are opened up and flattened while in the molten state.

Beveled glass: Usually made by taking one-quarter inch-thick clear glass and creating a one-inch bevel on one side around the entire periphery. These bevels act as prisms in the sunlight.

Breaking the score: Applying force to a piece of glass to that it breaks along a score line.

Cathedral glass: Transparent, colored sheet glass, either smooth or textured.

Copper foil method: Glass is wrapped with self-adhesive copper strips and soldered together.

Dalle de verre: A thick slab of stained glass (8"x ll"x 1") for use with epoxy or cement, often hand chipped and faceted.

Drapery glass: A sheet of heavily folded glass that suggests fabric folds. A small diameter hand-held roller is manipulated forcefully over a sheet of molten glass to produce heavy ripples, while folding and creasing the entire sheet. The ripples become rigid and permanent as the glass cools. Each sheet produced from this artisanal process is unique.

Etching: Removal of the layer of color from flashed glass with hydrofluoric acid. Areas to be etched are exposed with a cut, resistent stencil. Etching creams can be used on cathedral glass but will not work on flashed glass.

Flashed glass: Sheet glass with of two separate color layers. This glass is interesting for etching for etching and creating intricate two-color patterns without lead lines.

Fracture glass: Sheet glass with a pattern of irregularly shaped, thin glass wafers affixed to its surface.

Fracture-streamer glass: Sheet glass with a pattern of glass strings, and irregularly shaped, thin glass wafers, affixed to its surface.

Enamel: Powdered colored glass suspended in a volatile medium and painted onto the glass with a brush. When the medium has evaporated, the glass is kiln-fired to temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1350, making the enamel design permanent.

Glass bending: Sheet glass transformed into a curved/bent 3D shape by placing it on a mold and firing in a kiln, usually around 1350 to 1400.

Glass globs or nuggets: Rounded pieces of glass, 1/2" to 1" in diameter, usually cathedral colors.

Glass jewels: Glass have been pressed into molds and polished into consistent shapes and sizes, like large crystals. Shapes include circles, tear drops, and a few others.

Granite glass: Glass with one smooth side, and one slightly rough.

Grozzing: Using the curved, small fine tooth portion of the breaker/grozers to remove glass that has not broken clearly along th score.

Hammered glass: An old-fashined texture more often seen on cathedral glass, with small round marks looking as if they were made with a round head hammer.
Hydrofluoric acid: A acid that literally dissolves glass.

Joint: Where lead lines meet one another in the lead came technique.

Kiln: A firebrick oven used for bending, shaping and fusing glass.

Knapping: Like the Neanderthals were knapping silex into tools, faceting slab glass by chipping at the edges with a slab glass hammer.

Lead came: Lead that is extruded into "U" or "H" shaped strips, then cut and formed to accept and hold the stained glass shape. Available in spools or 6 feet strips.

Leaded glass: Glass held together by lead carries, soldered at all abutting joints.

Opalescent glass: Glass with varying degrees of opacity, favored by lampshade makers.

Oxidation: In stained glass, a tough, outer covering on lead came from exposure to air and is removed with a wire brush prior to soldering. Also, the dull finish on copper foil that was not soldered promptly. This can be removed by light rubbing with #000 steel wool.

Pattern: The line drawing stained glass design. Individual pieces may be numbered and color shadings indicated. A second copy is cut for pattern pieces.

Reamies: Antique glass with faint, delicate streaks of color swept through it.

Reinforcing bars: Galvanized steel rods spnning a lead or copper foil window to prevent it from bowing.

Resist material: Resistent material that protects areas of glass during acid etching or sandblasting.

Ring mottle glass: Sheet glass with a pronounced mottle created by localized, heat-treated opacification and crystal-growth dynamics.

Ripple glass: Sheet of textured glass with marked surface waves, in a straight or herringbone pattern.

Rolled edges: The smooth but uneven wavy sides of raw sheet glass from the lehr.

Sandblasting: Abrades glass away to various depths to produce patterns.

Seedy glass: Cathedral glass with numerous air bubbles that can be variously sized, and sometimes elongated when the molten sheet glass is stretched.

Score: A line impressed by rolling a glass cutting wheel upon the surface of the glass. This "fracture line" weakens the surface tension of the glass and allows it to be broken in a controlled manner.

Solder bead: Solder built up on copper foil to a rounded shape, for strength and appearance.

Streakies: Sheet glass with streaks of color.

Streamer glass: Sheet glass with glass strings affixed to its surface.

Tapping: Breaking a score with a ball-ended glasscutter tapped along the score from underneath to shock the score into breaking.

Tinning: A thin coat of solder applied to copper foil to stiffen it and protect it from oxidation, ofent if unable to continue the complete soldering.